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The Republic of India is a country that occupies the greater part of the Indian subcontinent. It has a coastline of over seven thousand kilometers (4349 miles) , borders Pakistan to the west, the People's Republic of China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north, and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, it is adjacent to the island nation of Sri Lanka. India is the seventh-largest country by geographical area and has one of the most diverse populations of wildlife, geographical terrain and climate systems found anywhere in the world.

The name India is derived from the Old Persian version of Sindhu, the historic local appellation for the River Indus. The Constitution of India and common usage also recognise Bharat (Hindi: भारत ), as an official name of equal status. Home to one of the four major ancient civilisations, a center of important trade routes and vast empires of the Mauryas, Guptas and the Mughals, India has long played a significant role in human history. Four religions, Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism–all have their origins in India, and Islam and Christianity enjoy a strong cultural heritage.

With over one billion people, it is the second most populous country in the world and the world's largest liberal democracy. India has 28 states and 7 territories, and recognizes 22 official languages spoken across its diverse regions, including the official national language, Hindi, and English, which is widely spoken. After decades of intensive efforts to combat the widespread poverty, illiteracy and poor living conditions across the country, India's economy is today the fourth-largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP) and the tenth-largest in nominal terms. Once reliant heavily on agriculture, India's economy is one of the fastest-growing in the world, and the nation is home to modern businesses and high-technology industries. India became a declared nuclear weapons state in 1974.




Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" Sanskrit: सत्यमेव जयत
("Truth Alone Triumphs")

Anthem: "Jana Gana Mana" Listen

 Capital New Delhi 28°34′N 77°12′E
 Largest city Mumbai (Bombay)
 Official language(s) Hindi, English, and 21 other languages
 Prime Minister
Federal republic
APJ Abdul Kalam
Manmohan Singh
From the United Kingdom
15th August 1947
26th January 1950
 Area Total
 Water (%)
3,287,590 km² (7th)
1,269,346 sq mi 
 2006 est.
 2001 census
 1,108,272,131 (2nd)
329/km² (19th)
852/sq mi 
 Per capita
2005 estimate
$3.678 trillion (4th)
$3400 (125th)
 HDI (2003) 0.602 (127th) – medium
 Currency Rupee (Rs.)(INR) Re. is singular
 Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
 Internet TLD .in
 Calling code +91

Indian Government                                                                                       Top of page                  

The Government of India (Hindi: Bharat Sarkar), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called Republic of India. The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of India are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the India Code. The federal (union) and individual state governments consist of executive, legislative and judicial branches. The legal system as applicable to the federal and individual state governments is based on the English Common and Statutory Law. India accepts compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction with several reservations.

Flag Tiranga
Emblem Sarnath Lion
Anthem "Jana Gana Mana"
Song "Vandē Mātaram"
Animal Royal Bengal Tiger
Bird Indian Peacock
Flower Lotus
Tree Banyan
Fruit Mango
Sport Field Hockey
Calendar Saka
National Flag code National Emblem National Flower National Bird National Animal
Tiranga Sarnath Lion Lotus Peacock Tiger

Judicial branch

India's independent judicial system began under the British, and its concepts and procedures resemble those of Anglo-Saxon countries. The Supreme Court of India consists of a Chief Justice and 25 associate justices, all appointed by the President on the advice of the Chief Justice of India. In the 1960s, India moved away from using juries for most trials, finding them to be corrupt and ineffective, instead almost all trials are conducted by judges.

Unlike its US counterpart, the Indian justice system consists of a unitary system at both state and federal level. The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of India, High Courts at the state level, and District and Session Courts at the district level.

Type of Government
The Preamble lays down the type of government that India has adopted - Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic.

The word sovereign means supreme or independent. India is internally and externally sovereign - externally free from the control of any foreign power and internally, it has a free government which is directly elected by the people, which makes laws which governs the people.

The word socialist was added to the Preamble by the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976. It implies social and economic equality for all its citizens. There will be no discrimination on the basis of caste, colour, creed, sex, religion, language etc. Everybody will be given equal status and opportunities. The government will make efforts to reduce the concentration of wealth in a few hands, and provide a decent standard of living to all.

India has adopted a mixed economic model, and the government has framed many laws to achieve the goal of socialism, such as Abolition of Untouchability and Zamindari Act, Equal Wages Act and Child Labour Prohibition Act.

The word secular was inserted into the Preamble by the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976. It implies equality of all religions and religious tolerance. India does not have any official state religion. Every person has the right to preach, practise and propagate any religion of their own choice. The government does not favour or discriminate any religion. It treats all religions with equal respect. All citizens, irrespective of their religious beliefs are equal in the eyes of law. No religious instruction is imparted in government or government - aided schools. Contrary to this, India made laws based on religion and sub-religion(caste).

India is a democratic country. People of India elect their governments at all levels (central, state and local) by a method of universal adult franchise. Every citizen of India, who is 18 years of age and above and who is not otherwise debarred by law, is entitled to vote. Every citizen enjoys this right without any discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, colour, sex, religion or education.

As opposed to a monarchy, in which the head of state is appointed on hereditary basis for a lifetime, or till he abdicates, a republic is a state in which the head of state is elected, directly or indirectly, for a fixed tenure. The President of India is elected by an electoral college for a term of five years.

Quasi - Federal Government
India has been called as a Union of States. In spite of having a Federal structure, that is two levels of government, clear division of powers and an independent judiciary, there is a strong bias towards making the Central government more powerful. This is called a Centralized Federation, or a Quasi-Federal Government, that is partly federal and partly unitary.

Federal Features of the Indian Government
There are two levels of government, that is Central and State Government. There is clear division of powers stated under the three lists – Union list, State list and Concurrent list. There is a written Constitution which is a supreme document, and an independent and impartial judiciary to interpret the Constitution and solve conflicts between the Central and State governments.

Unitary Features of the Indian Government
India has adopted the idea of single citizenship. The Parliament has vast legislative powers. It can legislate on 97 subjects of the union list, 47 subjects of the concurrent list and in times of national and state emergency, can also make laws on the 66 subjects of the state list. If there is a conflict between a union law and a state law over a subject present in the Concurrent list, the law made by the Parliament will prevail over the law made by the state legislatures.

Parliamentary government
India has adopted a parliamentary system of government borrowed from the United Kingdom. It is based on the fusion of powers between the executive and the legislature.

Under the Indian system, the Parliament is supreme as it is an elected body. There is a presence of two executives - the nominal executive and the real executive. The nominal executive, is the President of India. He enjoys all the constitutional powers, but exercises them only on the advice of the real executive. The real executive, that is the Prime Minister of India and the Cabinet, enjoy all the real powers and make all the important policy decisions.

All the members of the Council of Ministers as well as the Prime Minister have to be members of either house of the Parliament. If they are not, they must get elected within a period of six months from the time they assume their respective office. The Executive, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers are responsible to the Lok Sabha, both individually as well as collectively.

Individual responsibility
Every individual minister is in charge of a specific portfolio or department. He is responsible for any act of failure in all the policies relating to his department. In case of any lapse, he himself is individually responsible to the Parliament. If a vote of no - confidence is passes against the individual minister, he has to resign. Individual responsibility can amount to collective responsibility. Therefore, the Prime Minister, in order to save his government, can ask for the resignation of such a minister.

Collective responsibility
The Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers are jointly accountable to the Lok Sabha. If there is a policy failure or lapse on the part of the government, all the members of the council are jointly responsible. If a vote of no - confidence is passed against the government, then all the ministers headed by the Prime Minister have to resign.

Welfare State
A welfare state is a state in which the government provides for a wide range of social services and carries out a large number of welfare and developmental activities, like providing education, setting up of hospitals, protection of minorities, promoting agriculture and protecting the monuments along with the performance of police functions.

The Directive Principles of State Policy, enshrined in Part IV of the Indian Constitution reflects that India is a welfare state. Seats are reserved for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in government jobs, educational institutions, Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha. The government has passed a number of laws for the abolition of untouchability, Begar and Zamindari. The government has opened fair - priced shops, where certain essential commodities are sold at very reasonable prices to the poorer sections of the society.


Parliament of India

The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. It is located in New Delhi at Sansad Marg. This is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. The Indian Parliament consists of two houses - the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha - and the President of India. Any bill can become an act only after it is passed by both the houses of the Parliament and assented by the President.

Lok Sabha

The Lok Sabha is also known as House of People or the lower house. Almost all of its members are directly elected by citizens of India. It is the more powerful of the two houses since it can precede or overrule the upper house in many matters. The Lok Sabha has 552 members as of now. The number of members in Lok Sabha is regulated by Article 81 of the Constitution of India. It has a term of 5 years (it may be dissolved earlier by the President in the event of no party getting a majority). 550 members are directly elected by the people in a general election:

  • 530 members are elected from the States.
  • 20 members are elected from the Union territories.
  • 2 members of the Anglo-Indian community are nominated by the President if he is of the opinion that they are not adequately represented.

The representatives from States and Union Territories are directly elected by the people on the basis of universal adult suffrage. Every citizen who is over 18 years of age is eligible to vote. There is reservation of some seats for members of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes but not for members of any other community.

Rajya Sabha
The Rajya Sabha is also known as Council of States or the upper house. Its members are indirectly elected by members of legislative bodies of the states.

The Rajya Sabha has 250 members in all. Elections to it are scheduled and the chamber cannot be dissolved legally. Each member has a term of 6 years and elections are held for one-third of the seats after every 2 years. The composition is specified in Article 80 of the Constitution of India.

  • 12 members are nominated by the President from people having special knowledge or experience in literature, science, art or social services.
  • Representatives of States are elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of the State in accordance with system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote.
  • Representatives of Union Territories are indirectly elected by members of an electoral college for that territory in accordance with system of proportional representation.

The Council of States is designed to maintain the federal character of the country. The number of members from a state depends on the population of the state (e.g. 31 from Uttar Pradesh and 1 from Nagaland).

Houses of Parliament
The Houses of Parliament (Sansad Bhavan) is a circular structure designed by the British Architect Edwin Lutyens in 1911. The roof of the outer circle of the structure is supported by 257 granite pillars. The Houses are located on Janpath, a stone's throw away from the presidential palace (Rashtrapati Bhavan)

Politics of India

According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." India is said to be the largest nation on Earth with a democratically-elected government. Like the United States, India has a federal form of government. However, the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and its central government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. Regarding the former, "the Centre", the national government, can and has dismissed state governments if no majority party or coalition is able to form a government or under specific Constitutional clauses, and can impose direct federal rule known as President's rule.

The government exercises its broad administrative powers in the name of the President, whose duties are largely ceremonial. The president and vice president are elected indirectly for 5-year terms by a special electoral college. The vice president assumes the office of president in case of the death or resignation of the incumbent president.

Real national executive power is centered in the Council of Ministers (cabinet), led by the Prime Minister of India. The President appoints the Prime Minister, who is designated by legislators of the political party or coalition commanding a parliamentary majority. The President then appoints subordinate ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. (In reality, the President has no discretion on the question of whom to appoint as Prime Minister except when no political party or coalition of parties gains a majority in the Lok Sabha. Once the Prime Minister has been appointed, the President has no discretion on any other matter whatsoever, including the appointment of ministers. But all Central Government decisions are nominally taken in his name. This point should be kept in mind when reading about "decisions by the President", including such statements in this article)

India's bicameral parliament (also known as the Sansad) consists of the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People). The Council of Ministers is responsible to the Lok Sabha.

The legislatures of the states and union territories elect 238 members to the Rajya Sabha, and the president appoints another 12, who are experts in science or the arts. The elected members of the Rajya Sabha serve 6-year terms, with one-third up for election every 2 years. The Lok Sabha consists of 545 members; 543 are directly elected, while the other two are appointed by the President from among the Anglo-Indian community. The term of the Lok Sabha is five years.

India has 28 states and 7 union territories. States have their own elected governments, whereas Union Territories are governed by an administrator appointed by the union (federal) government. Some of the state legislatures are bicameral, patterned after the two houses of the national parliament. The states' chief ministers are responsible to the legislatures in the same way the prime minister is responsible to parliament.

Each state also has a presidentially appointed governor who may assume certain broad powers when directed by the central government. The central government exerts greater control over the union territories than over the states, although some territories have gained more power to administer their own affairs. Local governments in India have less autonomy than their counterparts in the United States. Some states are trying to revitalize the traditional village councils, or panchayat systems, which aim to promote popular democratic participation at the village level, where much of the population still lives.

  Geography                                                                                                                                                       Top of page  

The territory of India constitutes a major portion of the Indian subcontinent, situated on the Indian Plate, the northerly portion of the Indo-Australian Plate, in southern Asia. India's northern and northeastern states are partially situated in the Himalayan Mountain Range. The rest of northern, central and eastern India consists of the fertile Indo-Gangetic plain. In the west, bordering southeast Pakistan, lies the Thar Desert. The southern Indian Peninsula is almost entirely composed of the Deccan plateau, which is flanked by two hilly coastal ranges, the Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.

India is home to several major rivers, including the Ganga, Brahmaputra, Yamuna, Godavari, Kaveri, Narmada, and Krishna. India has three archipelagos – Lakshadweep off the southwest coast, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands volcanic island chain to the southeast, and the Sunderbans in the Gangetic delta in West Bengal.

Climate in India varies from tropical in the south to more temperate in the north, with elevated regions in the north receiving sustained snowfall. India's climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert. The Himalayas, along with the Hindu Kush mountains in Pakistan, provide a barrier to the cold winds from Central Asia. This keeps most of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations in similar latitudes. The Thar Desert is responsible for attracting the moisture laden southwest monsoon winds in that provide most of India's rainfall between June to September.


  History                                                                                                                   Top of page  

Stone Age rock shelters with paintings at Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh are the earliest known traces of human life in present-day India. The first known permanent settlements appeared over 9,000 years ago, and gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, which began around 3300 BCE and peaked between 2600 BCE and 1900 BCE. Cities of this culture exhibit advanced urban features and scientific accomplishments such as superior civil drainage systems and the world's earliest dock at Lothal. It was followed by the Vedic Civilisation, introduced by the Indo-Aryan peoples which laid the ancient foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects. In Vedic classical texts and Hindu mythology, the land is referred to as Bharatavarsha. From around 550 BCE, many independent kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas spread across the country. The country was witnessing a complex religious culture, with the birth of Jainism and Buddhism. Ancient universities arose in Taxshila, Nalanda, Pataliputra and Ujjain.

The empire built by the Maurya dynasty under Emperor Ashoka united most of modern South Asia. From 180 BCE, a series of invasions from Central Asia followed including the Indo-Greeks, Indo-Scythians, Indo-Parthians and Kushans in the northwestern Indian Subcontinent. From the third century BCE, the Gupta dynasty oversaw the period referred to as ancient India's "Golden Age." In the south, several dynasties, including the Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Cheras, Cholas, Pallavas and Pandyas prevailed during different periods. Science, engineering, art, literature, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy flourished under the patronage of these kings.

The Sanchi stupa in Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh built by emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BC. Following the invasions from Central Asia, between the tenth to the twelfth centuries, much of north India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty, who gradually expanded their reign throughout the Indian subcontinent. Nevertheless, several indigenous kingdoms flourished, especially in the south, like the Vijayanagara Empire. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, several European countries, including Portugal, Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom, initially arrived as traders, later took advantage of the fractious nature of relations between the kingdoms, to establish colonies in the country. By 1856, most of India came under control of the British East India Company, with the capital at Calcutta. A year later, a nationwide insurrection of rebelling military units and kingdoms, known locally as the First War of Indian Independence known as the Sepoy Mutiny In British Texts broke out, which failed even as it seriously challenged British rule. India thus came under the direct control of the British Empire.

Mahatma Gandhi is also known as the Father of the Nation in India.In the early twentieth century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress, led by Indians such as Bal Gangadhar Tilak ,Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Jawaharlal Nehru. Millions of protestors would engage in mass campaigns of civil disobedience with a commitment to ahimsa - total non-violence - that was largely kept. Gandhi would lead Indians in the Dandi Salt March to defy the salt tax, and an all-out revolt in 1942 demanding that the British Quit India. India gained its independence on August 15th, 1947 - 565 princely states united with British-era provinces to form a united nation, but not before the Muslim-majority provinces were partitioned as a result of the separatist campaign led by the Muslim League to form Pakistan. Since independence, India has seen sectarian violence and insurgencies in various parts of the country, but has maintained its unity and democracy. It has unresolved border disputes with China, which escalated into the brief Sino-Indian War in 1962; and with Pakistan, which resulted in wars in 1947, 1965, 1971 and in 1999 in Kargil. India is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations. In 1974, India conducted an underground nuclear test, making it an unofficial member of the "nuclear club". This was followed by a series of five more tests in 1998. Significant economic reforms beginning in 1991 have transformed India into one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, and added to its global and regional clout.


  Culture                                                                                                                                                              Top of page  

India has a rich and unique cultural heritage, and has managed to preserve its established traditions throughout history whilst absorbing customs, traditions and ideas from both invaders and immigrants. Many cultural practices, languages, customs and monuments are examples of this co-mingling over centuries. Famous monuments, such as the Taj Mahal and other examples of Islamic-inspired architecture have been inherited from the Mughal dynasty. These are the result of a syncretic tradition that combined elements from all parts of the country.

Tajmahal Tajmahal Akshardham

Indian music is represented in a wide variety of forms. The two main forms of classical music are Carnatic from South India, and Hindustani from North India. Popular forms of music also prevail, the most notable being Filmi music. In addition to this are the diverse traditions of folk music from different parts of the country. Many classical dance forms exist, including the Bharatanatyam, Kathakali, Kathak and Manipuri. They often have a narrative form and are usually infused with devotional and spiritual elements. The earliest literary traditions in India were mostly oral, and were later transcribed. Most of these are represented by sacred works like the Vedas and the epics of the Mahabharata and Ramayana. Sangam literature from Tamil Nadu represents some of India's oldest traditions. There have been many notable modern Indian writers, both in Indian languages and in English. India's only Nobel laureate in literature was the Bengali writer Rabindranath Tagore. India produces the world's largest number of films every year. The most recognizable face is that of cinema production based in Mumbai, which produces mainly commercial Hindi films, often referred to as "Bollywood". There are also strong cinema industries based on the Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and Bengali languages. Religious practices of various faiths are an integral part of everyday life in society. Education is highly regarded by members of every socio-economic stratum. Traditional Indian family values are highly respected, and considered sacred, although urban families have grown to prefer a nuclear family system, owing to the socio-economic constraints imposed by the traditional joint family system. Religion in India is a very public affair, with many practices imbued with pomp and vitality accompanying their underlying spiritual qualities.

The cuisine of India is extremely diverse, as ingredients, spices and cooking methods vary from region to region. Rice and wheat are the staple foods in the country. The country is notable for its wide variety of vegetarian and non-vegetarian cuisine. Spicy food and sweets are popular in India. Traditional dress in India greatly varies across the regions in its colors and styles, and depend on various factors, including climate. Popular styles of dress include the traditional sari for women and the traditional dhoti for men.

India's national sport is field hockey, although cricket is now the de facto national game. In some states, particularly in the northeast, football (soccer) is the most popular sport and is widely watched. In recent times, tennis has gained popularity in India with the rise of players such as Leander Paes and Sania Mirza. India is also represented in chess, with international-level players such as Vishwanathan Anand. Traditional indigenous sports include kabaddi and gilli-danda, which are played in most parts of the country.


  Economy                                                                                                                                                       Top of page  

The economy of India is the fourth-largest in the world as measured by purchasing power parity (PPP), with a GDP of US $3.36 trillion. When measured in USD exchange-rate terms, it is the tenth largest in the world, with a GDP of US $691.87 billion. India was the second fastest growing major economy in the world, with a GDP growth rate of 8.1% at the end of the first quarter of 2005–2006. However, India's huge population results in a relatively low per capita income of $3,400 at PPP and is classified as a developing nation.

For most of its independent history India has adhered to a socialist-inspired approach, with strict government control over private sector participation, foreign trade, and foreign direct investment. Since the early 1990s, India has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment. Privatization of public-owned industries and opening up of certain sectors to private and foreign players has proceeded slowly amid political debate.

India has a labors force of 496.4 million of which agriculture constitutes 60%, industry 17%, and services 23%. India's agricultural produce include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry and fish. Major industries include textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum and machinery.[4]

In recent times, India has also capitalized on its large number of highly educated people who are fluent in the English language to become an important location for global companies outsourcing customer service and technical support call centers. It is also a major exporter of skilled workers in software services, financial services, and software engineers. India's most important trading partners are the United States, the European Union, Japan, the People's Republic of China, and the United Arab Emirates.


Economic Fact File
Currency 1 Indian Rupee (INR) (₨) = 100 Paise
Fiscal year April 1—March 31
Current fiscal year (2005—2006)
Current Five-Year Plan 10th (2002—2007)
Central bank Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
Trade organizations and treaties SAFTA, ASEAN, WIPO and WTO
Union budget $67.3 billion (revenue)
$104 billion (expenditure)
Inflation rate (monthly) 3.53% (September)


Prime Minister
(Chairman of the Planning Commission)
Manmohan Singh
Finance Minister P. Chidambaram
Commerce Minister Kamal Nath
RBI Governor Y. Venugopal Reddy
SEBI Chairman M. Damodaran


Corruption Perceptions Index 88th (2005)
Index of Economic Freedom 118th (mostly unfree) (2005)
UN Human Development Index 127th (2005)

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Real GDP (at PPP) $3.678 trillion (4th) (2005)
Nominal GDP (at current exchange rates) $735.6 billion (10th) (2004)
Real GDP growth rate (at PPP) 7.1% (32nd) (2005)
GDP growth rate 8.1% (March-May, 2005)
GDP per capita $3,400 (155th)
GDP by sector agriculture (21.8%), industry (26.1%), services (52.2%)


Population below poverty line 25% (2002 est.)
Labour force 482.2 million
Labour force by occupation (1999) agriculture (57%), industry (17%), services (23%) (2005-06)
Unemployment rate 7.32% (1999-2000)


Agricultural products rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, poultry, fish
Main industries textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software

External trade

Imports (2003) $89.33 billion f.o.b (25th)
Major imported commodities crude oil, machiknery, gems, fertilizer, chemicals
Main import partners USA 7.0%, Belgium 6.1%, China 5.9%, Singapore 4.8%, UK 4.6%, Australia 4.6%, Germany 4.5% (2004)
Exports $69.18 billion f.o.b (35th)
Major exported commodities textile goods, gems and jewellery, engineering goods, chemicals, leather manufactures, IT, ITES
Main export partners (2003) USA 18.4%, China 7.8%, UAE 6.7%, UK 4.8%, Hong Kong 4.3%, Germany 4.0%
Overall balance of payments (2003) $31,421
  Fast Links:  


Governmental                                                                                                                                           Top of Page
  President of India www.presidentofindia.nic.in
Parliament of India parliamentofindia.nic.in/
India image portal indiaimage.nic.in/
Prime minister of India pmindia.nic.in/
Directory of official websites of Government of India goidirectory.nic.in/
News/Periodicals                                                                                                                                      Top of Page
  Times of India www.timesofindia.com
The Hindu www.thehindu.com
Indian Express www.indianexpress.com
India Today www.indiatodaygroup.com
Bollywood (Indian Movies and Theatre)                                                                                                     Top of Page
  about bollywood en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bollywood

Cinema of India


Regional/States                                                                                                                                        Top of Page

(state portals which include all info about Tourism, Festivals, Governance in state, Business etc.)

Andaman & Nicobar (UT) Haryana Orissa
Andhra Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Pondicherry (UT)
Arunachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Punjab
Assam Jharkhand Rajasthan
Bihar Karnataka Sikkim
Chandigarh (UT) Kerala Tamil Nadu
Chhattisgarh Lakshadweep (UT) Tripura
Dadra & Nagar Haveli (UT) Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh
Daman & Diu (UT) Manipur Uttaranchal
Delhi(NCT) Meghalaya  
Goa Mizoram  
Gujarat Nagaland